SE Labs

Posts tagged 'test results'

Network security appliances vs. Word and PowerShell

Over the last few months we have seen a surge in attacks using apparently innocent documents that install malware covertly on victims’ systems.

Unless you are running specialist monitoring tools, or very effective security software, you probably won’t see any symptoms of the attack.

The goals of these attacks are varied. In some cases they provide remote access to hackers. In others so-called cryptocurrency mining software is installed. These programs (ab)use your systems’ processing power in an attempt to generate cryptocurrencies such as Monero. The attackers get rich off your power bill.

While there are variations in how the attacks work, the typical path to compromise involves opening the document, which could be in Microsoft Word format, after which an exploit runs a PowerShell script. This, in turn, downloads and installs the malware.

In this report we investigate how effectively some very popular network security products are at handling these and other threats.

As usual, we have also thrown in some particularly devious targeted attacks that appear to be completely legitimate applications but that provide us with remote access to unprotected targets. When we gain this access we try to hack the target in the same way a real attacker would. This gives the security products the best chance of detecting and potentially blocking the bad behaviour.

The good news is that all of these products were able to detect many (if not all) of the threats. Some were able to block most, although complete protection is not guaranteed. As always, a layered approach to protection is best. For advice on which endpoint software to choose see our Endpoint Protection test results on our website.

Latest report (PDF) now online.

Detected, blocked, quarantined, cleaned?

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What happens when your choice of security software handles an attack?

Latest reports now online.

It should be simple. You’ve clicked on the wrong link, opened a malicious email or installed something inadvisable. A threat is now attacking your PC and it’s up to your choice of anti-malware product to handle things.

But what does it actually do under the hood?

Detection is important. The product should recognise that a threat exists, even if it can’t fully handle it. At least you can receive an alert and seek help (or an alternative anti-malware program!)
Blocking threats is also very important. Ideally the protection system will prevent the malware from running. Sometimes that doesn’t happen and the malware runs. In that case one hopes that the security software would recognise that bad things are happening and stop them. This is what we call ‘neutralisation’.

Following a neutralisation your computer might not be completely clean. There could be some rogue code still on your hard disk, possibly even on your Desktop. There might also be entries in the Registry and elsewhere that will try to run this code (or code that has been deleted or quarantined).
You probably want your system to be protected by having threats blocked and, in cases where they are not, that they be removed as fast as possible and all significant traces removed. We call this happy state ‘complete remediation’.

In SE Labs tests we measure all of these outcomes, including the worst one: compromise.

If you want to know how the different products tested in this report handled threats in detail, check out the Protection Details table and graph on page 10 of our reports. We don’t show details of which products completely remediated threats and which did not when neutralising but the Protection Ratings on page eight take these into account.

If you spot a detail in this report that you don’t understand, or would like to discuss, please contact us via our Twitter or Facebook accounts.

SE Labs uses current threat intelligence to make our tests as realistic as possible. To learn more about how we test, how we define ‘threat intelligence’ and how we use it to improve our tests please visit our website and follow us on Twitter.

Our latest reports, for enterprise, small business and home users are now available for free from our website. Please download them and follow us on Twitter and/or Facebook to receive updates and future reports.

What’s the difference between SE Labs and a cyber-criminal?

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As we prepared this network security appliance report for publication we were also getting ready to present at BT’s internal security conference Snoopcon.

We had been asked to talk about security products and how they might not do what you assume they will.

Reports like this (PDF) provide an interesting insight into how security products actually work. Marketing messages will inevitably claim world-beating levels of effectiveness, while basic tests might well support these selling points. But when you actually hack target systems through security appliances you sometimes get a very different picture.

Some vendors will support the view that testing using a full attack chain (from a malicious URL pushing an exploit, which in turn delivers a payload that finally provides us with remote access to the system) is the right way to test. Others may point out that the threats we are using don’t exactly exist in the real world of criminality because we created them in the lab and are not using them to break into systems worldwide.

We think that is a weak argument. If we can obtain access to certain popular, inexpensive tools online and create threats then these (or variants extremely close to them) are just as likely to exist in the ‘real world’ of the bad guys as in a legitimate, independent test lab. Not only that, but we don’t keep creating new threats until we break in, which is what the criminals (and penetration testers) do. We create a set and, without bias, expose all of the tested products to these threats.

But in some ways we have evolved from being anti-malware testers to being penetration testers, because we don’t just scan malware, execute scripts or visit URLs. Once we gain access to a target we perform the same tasks as a criminal would do: escalating privileges, stealing password hashes and installing keyloggers. The only difference between us and the bad guys is that we’re hacking our own systems and helping the security vendors plug the gaps.

Latest report (PDF) now online.

Are you buying solid protection or snake oil?

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Sometimes testers need to be tested too. We’re always up for a challenge!
Latest reports now online.
How do you know which security products to buy? Many rely on independent tests to help in the decision-making process. But how do you know if a test is any good or not?
The Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization (AMTSO) has been working to create a Standard that will give you, the customer, some assurance that the test was conducted fairly.
Earlier this year AMTSO has been trying out its Standard, which it has been working on for many months. SE Labs is proud to be involved in this initiative and the testing for this report has been assessed for compliance with the Standard.
If that sounds a bit dry, what it means is that there are experimental rules about how a tester should behave and we have put ourselves up for judgment by AMTSO.
Did participating in this process change the way we worked? Yes, but not in the technical ways that we test. Instead we turned the testing world’s business model on its head.
Many testers charge vendors money to be tested. Some will test regardless, but charge money if the vendors want to see their results before publication (and have the opportunity to make requests for corrections).
We think that the dispute process should be free for all. SE Labs has not charged any vendor for its participation in this test and we provided a free dispute process to any vendor that requested it. In this way every vendor is treated as equally as possible, for the fairest possible test.

UPDATE (10th May 2018): We are extremely proud to announce that our 2018 Q1 reports have been judged compliant (PDF) with the AMTSO Draft Standard v6.1 – 2018-05-10.

If you spot a detail in this report that you don’t understand, or would like to discuss, please contact us via our Twitter or Facebook accounts.
SE Labs uses current threat intelligence to make our tests as realistic as possible. To learn more about how we test, how we define ‘threat intelligence’ and how we use it to improve our tests please visit our website and follow us on Twitter.
Our latest reports, for enterprise, small business and home users are now available for free from our website. Please download them and follow us on Twitter and/or Facebook to receive updates and future reports.

Tough test for email security services

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Our latest email cloud security test really challenged the services under evaluation.

Latest report now online.

Last summer we launched our first email cloud security test and, while it was very well received by our readers and the security industry as a whole, we felt that there was still work to do on the methodology.

This report shows the results of six months of further development, and a much clearer variation in the capabilities of the services under test.

The most significant change to the way we conducted this test lies in the selection of threats we used to challenge the security services: we increased the number and broadened the sophistication.

Whereas we might have used one fake FBI blackmail email previously, in this test we sent 10, each created using a different level of sophistication. Maybe a service will detect the easier versions but allow more convincing examples through to the inbox?

We wanted to test the breaking point.

We also used a much larger number of targeted attacks. There was one group of public ‘commodity’ attacks, such as anyone on the internet might receive at random, but also three categories of crafted, targeted attacks including phishing, social engineering (e.g. fraud) and targeted malware (e.g. malicious PDFs).

Each individual attack was recreated 10 times in subtly different but important ways.

Attackers have a range of capabilities, from poor to extremely advanced. We used our “zero to Neo” approach to include basic, medium, advanced and very advanced threats to see what would be detected, stopped or allowed through.

The result was an incredibly tough test.

We believe that a security product that misses a threat should face significant penalties, while blocking legitimate activity is even more serious.

If you’re paying for protection threats should be stopped and your computing experience shouldn’t be hindered. As such, services that allowed threats through, and blocked legitimate messages, faced severe reductions to their accuracy ratings and, subsequently, their chances of winning an award.

Intelligence-Led Testing

We pay close attention to how criminals attempt to attack victims over email. The video below shows a typically convincing attack that starts with a text message and ends stealing enough information to clean out a bank account.
SE Labs uses current threat intelligence to make our tests as realistic as possible. To learn more about how we test, how we define ‘threat intelligence’ and how we use it to improve our tests please visit our website and follow us on Twitter.

Predictably Evil

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A common criticism of computer security products is that they can only protect against known threats. When new attacks are detected and analysed security companies produce updates based on this new knowledge. It’s a reactive approach that can provide attackers with a significant window of opportunity.

It’s why anti-virus has been declared dead on more than one occasion.

Latest report now online.

Security companies have, for some years, developed advanced detection systems, often labelled as using ‘AI’, ‘machine learning’ or some other technical-sounding term. The basic idea is that past threats are analysed in deep ways to identify what future threats might look like. Ideally the result will be a product that can detect potentially bad files or behaviour before the attack is successful.

(We wrote a basic primer to understanding machine learning a couple of years ago.)

So does this AI stuff really work? Is it possible to predict new types of evil software? Certainly investors in tech companies believe so, piling hundreds of millions of funding dollars into new start-ups in the cyber defence field.

We prefer lab work to Silicon Valley speculation, though, and built a test designed to challenge the often magical claims made by ‘next-gen’ anti-malware companies.

With support from Cylance, we took four of its AI models and exposed them to threats that were seen in well-publicised attacks (e.g. WannaCry; Petya) months and even years later than the training that created the models.

It’s the equivalent of sending an old product forward in time and seeing how well it works with future threats. To find out how the Cylance AI models fared, and to discover more about how we tested, please download our report for free from our website.

Follow us on Twitter and/ or Facebook to receive updates and future reports.

Hacked! Will your anti-malware protect you from targeted attacks?

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The news isn’t good. Discover your best options in our latest reports.

Latest reports now online.

Criminals routinely create ingenious scams and indiscriminate attacks designed to compromise the unlucky and, occasionally, foolish. But sometimes they focus on a specific target rather than casting a net wide in the hope of landing something interesting.

Targeted attacks can range from basic, like an email simply asking you to send some money to an account, through to extremely devious and technical. If you received an email from your accountant with an attached PDF or Excel spreadsheet would you open it?

Most would and all that then stands between them and a successful hack (because the email was a trick and contained a dodgy document that gives remote control to the attacker) is the security software running on their PC.

In this test we’ve included indiscriminate, public attacks that come at victims from the web and via email, but we’ve also included some devious targeted attacks to see how well-protected potential victims would be.

We’ve not created any new types of threat and we’ve not discovered and used ‘zero day’ attacks. Instead we took tools that are freely distributed online and are well-known to penetration testers and criminals alike. We used these to generate threats that are realistic representations of what someone could quite easily put together to attack you or your business.

The results are extremely worrying. While a few products were excellent at detecting and protecting against these threats many more were less useful. We will continue this work and report any progress that these companies make in improving their products.

Our latest reports, for enterprise, small business and home users are now available for free from our website. Please download them and follow us on Twitter and/or Facebook to receive updates and future reports.

Network appliances vs. targeted attacks

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There have been so many publicised data breaches in 2017 that we didn’t even have enough space in our latest report to provide a basic summary. In many cases a business network was breached. Business networks comprise endpoints (usually Windows PCs), servers, Point of Sale computers and a range of other devices.

Latest reports now online.

In this report (PDF) we explore the effectiveness of network appliances designed to detect and block attacks against endpoint systems.

One approach to compromising a business is to hack an endpoint (PC) and then to use it as a platform from which to launch further attacks into the network. For example, rather than going straight for a company’s main servers why not trick a user into infecting his/ her computer with malware? We can then scan and infect the entire network, stealing information, causing damage and generally behaving in ways contrary to the business’ best interests.

There is some really good endpoint software available, as we see in our regular Endpoint Protection tests, but nothing is perfect and any extra layers of security are welcome. If one layer fails, others exist to mitigate the threat. In this report we explore the effectiveness of network appliances designed to detect and protect against attacks against endpoint systems.

The systems we have tested here are popular appliances designed to sit between your endpoints and the internet router. They are designed to detect, and often protect against, threats coming in from the internet or passing through the local network. Their role is to stop threats before they reach the endpoints. If they fail to stop a threat, they might learn that an attack has happened and generate an alert, while subsequently blocking future, similar attacks.

There are no guarantees that technology will always protect you from attackers, but our results show that adding layers of security is an effective way to improve your prospects when facing general and more targeted attacks.

100% Certifiable

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Whether you’re in the market for a car, hamburger or computer security product, certifications are useful. They don’t tell you how smooth the car drives, how tasty the sandwich is or how completely accurate the anti-virus software will be, but certifications indicate a general level of competence.

Latest reports now online.

In the UK new cars must be certified by the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA), restaurants are checked for hygiene by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and various independent testing organisations, including SE Labs, test IT security products for basic functionality.

A certification emphatically does not indicate the overall quality of a product, though. The FSA specifically states that, “The food hygiene rating is not a guide to food quality.” In other words, the food won’t make you ill, but you might not like it! Similarly, the VCA cares more about cars being made according to specification rather than how nice they look.

SE Labs has a range of available testing services. We consider certification to be the most basic type of testing. If a product claims to be able to detect malware then we can test that, but we don’t claim it can detect all types. For a higher level of understanding about a product’s capabilities so-called ‘real-world’ testing is necessary.

The report you are reading now is based on our more advanced testing, which exposes real products to live threats in a realistic environment, running on real computers on an internet-connected network.

But how can you be sure that we’re really doing that, and not just making up the figures or giving some products an unfair advantage? After all, some companies contribute financially to supporting the tests, while others do not.

To go some way to addressing this concern, as well as to improve generally and continue to evolve the business, SE Labs has achieved ISO 9001:2015 certification for “The Provision of IT Security Product Testing”. We think it’s fair for the testers to be tested and we’re very proud to have passed!
If you spot a detail in this report that you don’t understand, or would like to discuss, please contact us via our Twitter or Facebook accounts.

SE Labs uses current threat intelligence to make our tests as realistic as possible. To learn more about how we test, how we define ‘threat intelligence’ and how we use it to improve our tests please visit our website and follow us on Twitter.

Our latest reports, for enterprise, small business and home users are now available for free from our website. Please download them and follow us on Twitter and/or Facebook to receive updates and future reports.

Email hosted protection tested

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Our first cloud-based email protection report is now available.

Email provides a route right into the heart of our computers, phones and other devices. As such, it is frequently abused to perform a variety of attacks against potential victims of cybercrime.

Latest report now online.

The sophistication of attacks vary but many rely on our almost unbreakable instinct to open, read and interact with messages sent to work and personal email accounts. Businesses rely on email security services to filter out large numbers of such attacks.

The range of attack types in the real world is wide, but in general we consider there to be two main categories: targeted attacks, in which the attacker attempts to target a specific individual; and public attacks, which spread wide and far in an attempt to compromise as many people as possible.
Many of the same techniques are used in public and targeted attacks. The least technically sophisticated include requests for a money transfer or banking login credentials. More credible attempts include professionally-formatted emails and links to fake websites designed to trick users into entering their valuable details.

Attackers with more resources may use malware to achieve their goals, either in the form of attached files or by linking to websites that exploit visiting computers.
SE Labs monitors email threats in real-time, analysing large  numbers of messages and extracting samples that represent  large groups of those threats. Human testers then manually verify that any malware included works properly before re-sending these threats to our own accounts through the tested services.

We also generate targeted attacks using the same tools and techniques used by advanced attackers. In gathering threats this way we achieve a realistic and relevant coverage of existing threats in a small set of test samples.

Our latest reports, for enterprise, small business and home users are now available for free from our website. Please download them and follow us on Twitter and/or Facebook to receive updates and future reports.

About

SE Labs Ltd is a private, independently-owned and run testing company that assesses security products and services. The main laboratory is located in Wimbledon, South London. It has excellent local and international travel connections. The lab is open for prearranged client visits.

Contact

SE Labs Ltd
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020 3875 5000

info@selabs.uk

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